Synthesis: New Activities of Universities in Transfer and Extension: Multiple Requirements and manifold Solutions

Published in: 
Science and Public Policy, 36(2), March 2009, pages 157-164
Bo Göransson, Rasigan Maharajh and Ulrich Schmoch
ISSN: 0302-3427, e-ISSN: 1471-5430.

The third mission encompasses all activities of universities beyond their first and second missions, education and research. An analysis of various countries with different economic, political and geographic features reveals an increased demand for such activities in particular with regard to technology transfer, but also as to the support of the civil society in more general terms. Therefore the universities have to find a new balance between education, research and transfer/extension. However, suitable solutions are often complicated by the orientation of the universities and the policy actors on non-scrutinized paradigms originating in other contexts. The strategies in different countries are embedded in their specific context, making it impossible to determine a best practice. Nonetheless, many interesting approaches can be observed, and mutual learning can be fruitful.

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