Globally about 2.5 billion people do not have access to improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practice open defecation. Being seen practicing open defecation can provoke the greatest form of embarrassment. In particular, open defecation symbolises an embedded form of marginalisation especially in remote rural villages where latrines are often restricted to village elites. That is, rural sanitation is closely linked to global inequalities in which rural poor sanitation reflects multiple levels of inequality.
IERI Working paper WP2019-004