INNOVATION THEORY, SYSTEMS AND INDICATORS

Thematic Area: 
This research thematic is grounded on the established idea that innovation emerges within a “system”, that is, in a context in which a range of actors interact, exchange and recombine different types of knowledge, subsequently converting that knowledge into value. The innovation systems perspective highlights the importance of networking, interactive learning and collaboration, providing an analytical framework to understand innovation practices as multilateral and highly context-specific phenomena. The contributions from the innovation systems literature are now widely accepted as a framework to formulate interventions by many governments, international donors and organisations.

The innovation systems approach is grounded in evolutionary (political) economy, and as such, it is subject to a wide range of interpretations. Multiple interpretations materialise in equally multiple translations in terms of policy implementation. The theoretical advances in understanding how innovation emerges in a system, is not matched by the existence of evidence and indicators that can inform systemic policy interventions to promote innovation. One key challenge is that for indicators to meaningfully inform policy in developing regions, capturing the contextual and historical factors that define each territory.

Selected Books, Chapters and Reports

2014
Maria Clara Couto Soares, Mario Scerri, Rasigan Maharajh (Editors)

This volume analyses the co-evolution of inequality and NSI across the BRICS economies. It reveals the multi-dimensional character of inequality, in going beyond its income aspect to include assets, access to basic services, infrastructure, knowledge, race, gender,...

Keywords: BRICS | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Rasigan Maharajh | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2014
Ana Arroio, Mario Scerri (Editors)

This volume looks at the relationship between small and medium enterprises and national systems of innovation across the BRICS countries. It brings to fore crucial issues in the evolution and future trends of industrial or innovation policies for small...

Keywords: BRICS | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2013
Fred Gault

‘This book brings together original contributions from world leading experts on innovation indicators and is unique in several respects. First, the focus is upon innovation in terms of commercialized products and processes and not on secondary indicators of research or patenting. Second, it combines academic perspectives with user perspectives from industry and international organizations....

Keywords: Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2013
José E. Cassiolato, Graziela Zucoloto, Dinesh Abrol, Liu Xielin (Editors)

This book offers a novel approach to the analysis of the role of transnational corporations in the national systems of innovation of the BRICS economies — Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa — and captures the institutional and policy dynamics that...

Keywords: BRICS | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2013
Michael Kah, Luiz Martins de Melo, Marcelo Matos (Editors)

This book analyses the role of innovation financing in the BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa — through a national systems of innovation approach, and captures the institutional and policy dynamics that have determined their location in the new ordering of the global political economy...

Keywords: BRICS | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2012
Erika Kraemer-Mbula, Shamila Nair-Bedouelle and Martin Schaaper
Keywords: Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2012
Mario Scerri and Helena M. M. Lastres (Editors)

This five volume set examines various aspects of the BRICS economies from a national system of innovation perspective. Original and detailed data together with expert analyses by contributing authors on wide-ranging issues make this an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics,...

Keywords: BRICS | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2012
Erika Kraemer-Mbula, Shamila Nair-Bedouelle, Martin Schaaper and Aurelie Ek
Keywords: Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2012

In recent years, the need to address social and environmental challenges has grown in urgency. Climate change, global health, food security and many other global challenges cross national borders and affect a wide range of actors. Yet, in most cases, single governments cannot provide effective solutions. Global challenges call for co-operation on a global scale to build capacity in...

Keywords: Governance | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | International co-operation | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2010
Fred Gault

Innovation provides a path to sustainable growth but a strategy for innovation in a global economy is no longer national. Countries must attract people and investment from abroad and participate in world markets and institutions. This book starts with the language and system framework used to discuss innovation, and the statistical indicators needed to describe the activity. It then looks at...

Keywords: Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2010
Erika Kraemer-Mbula and Watu Wamae

Innovation drives long-term economic growth. It has a crucial role to play as global economies recover from the current financial crisis. This book examines the role of innovation in developing countries, with a focus on Africa. It investigates innovation systems and their application; the key role of knowledge in innovation for development; and the importance of comparable country studies and...

Keywords: Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2009
Bo Göransson, Rasigan Maharajh and Ulrich Schmoch

The third mission encompasses all activities of universities beyond their first and second missions, education and research. An analysis of various countries with different economic, political and geographic features reveals an increased demand for such activities in particular with regard to technology transfer, but also as to the support of the civil society in more general terms. Therefore...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Rasigan Maharajh | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2009
Bo Göransson, Rasigan Maharajh and Ulrich Schmoch

The two time-honoured tasks of universities are teaching and research which have long provided society with specific skills and new knowledge and ideas. Expectations have increased exponentially and demands are originating from a much wider range of stakeholders. Universities are now given progressively more important roles in economic expansion, social development, better forms of political...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Rasigan Maharajh | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2009
Rasigan Maharajh and Erika Kraemer-Mbula

Innovation provides a path to sustainable growth but a strategy for innovation in a global economy is no longer national. Countries must attract people and investment from abroad and participate in world markets and institutions. This book starts with the language and system framework used to discuss innovation, and the statistical indicators needed to describe the activity. It then looks at...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Rasigan Maharajh | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2009
Thomas Pogue

South Africa's forestry value chain reflects a legacy of historical import-substituting industrialisation policies. It is a resource-based set of activities with significant local value and international competitiveness.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2009

There is an extensive historiography of Africa’s mineral resource endowment, but it has largely neglected the innovative capacity resulting from those resources. This article reduces that gap through an analysis of the system of innovation that developed in Southern Africa around the Kimberley diamond deposits. After a brief review of the systems of innovation concept, attention turns to...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2008
Thomas Pogue

South Africa remains one of the world's largest producers of gold, despite the majority of its deposits being several kilometres below the surface. In the late 1960s the depth of the gold deposits motivated the Chamber of Mines Research Organisation (COMRO), the industry's cooperative research institute, to undertake research and development of alternative technologies to extract the gold-...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2008
Temba Masilela

This paper is the first part of a larger project which includes other collaborators and that aims to construct a framework of the policy imperatives and challenges that have implications for the performance and success of the Technology Innovation Agency. This larger project will assess the performance of the agency in terms of creating public value (Moore, 1995) and examine any unintended...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2008
Mario Scerri

In this book, Mario Scerri provides the reader with a novel and sweeping rendition of South Africa's economic history from the early part of the twentieth century to the present. He applies a broad innovation systems approach to this history spanning the period from 1916, which saw the drafting of South Africa's first Science and Technology plan to the first fourteen years of the post-...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2007
Thomas Pogue

The intensified pace of scientific advancements and technological progress reflected in newspaper headlines around the world today is related to the unprecedented and ever-accelerating speed of knowledge creation, accumulation and depreciation.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2006
Mario Scerri

This book emerged from the seminar on the Measurement of Innovation Activities in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)and non-OECD countries held in South Africa in 2001. The motivation for that forum was the recognised need to address a new exciting phenomenon in the area of economic policy formulation.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2006
William Blankley, Mario Scerri, Neo Molotja, Imraan Saloojee (eds)

It is widely accepted that innovation is key to economic growth. Countries where research and innovation are high on the national agenda are best suited to prosper in the knowledge-based economy. Conversely, countries whose economies are mainly dependent on natural resources and basic industries tend to lack competitiveness and flexibility in adapting to changing global trends. The...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
2005
Rasigan Maharajh

Better information is the key to higher levels of innovation in SA. Statistics, indicators and indices tell us that SA can be categorised as an emerging economy.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Rasigan Maharajh | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports
Bengt-Åke Lundvall, Mammo Muchie and Peter Gammeltoft

When Muchie and Lundvall initiated the international conference ‘African Systems of Innovation and Competence Building’ March 2001 in Aalborg the intention was to reexamine the problems of African development by mobilising the scholarship on innovation systems. The major objective was to respond to academic and analytical questions: what lessons could be drawn from applying the innovation...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Selected Books, Chapters and Reports

IERI Working Papers

2014
Erika Kraemer-Mbula, Rasigan Maharajh, Enver Motala, Lindile Ndabeni, Olusanya Osha and Mario Scerri
Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2011
Ismat Mahmuda, Angathevar Baskaran and Jatin Pancholi

Micro financing is perceived to contribute towards poverty reduction by developing small enterprises. We examined the Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction (CFPR) programme implemented by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) between 2002 and 2007. We selected this case because it used a different approach of micro financing where assets were transferred rather than cash...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2010
Angathevar Baskaran and Mammo Muchie

In this paper an attempt will be made to identify what has been explicitly recognised as central and peripheral within the systems of innovation concept; the inclusion or exclusion of the factors that are important in understanding the political economy of innovation systems; the themes, issues and range of actors and spaces that must be included in NSI types of appreciative theory or...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2010
Na-Allah Abdelrasaq Suyuti and Mammo Muchie

In many extant analyses of the impact of non-reciprocal system of trade preferences it is typical to focus on the details of market access value of tariff concessions as explanation for why export of beneficiaries’ products may or may not respond to incentives. Very often the role that supply-related factors can and do play in the process is relegated to the background. This paper argues that...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2009
Na-Allah Abdelrasaq Suyuti

Despite attempts to induce regional competitiveness in industrial manufactures, poor productivity performances continue to plague the ability of African entrepreneurs to compete successfully in international markets. While many plausible explanations can be put forward to explain this failing, we argue in this paper that an analysis of the social and institutional context within which these...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2009
Jo Lorentzen and Thomas Pogue

The intellectual assets underpinning the modern knowledge economy are not normally associated with activities in the primary sector. This raises the question whether resourcebased developing countries are eternally relegated to the Also-Runs in global competition or at least whether they need to disassociate themselves from their economic mainstay in order for catch-up to materialise. The...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2009
Rasigan Maharajh and Erika Kraemer-Mbula

This paper is a contribution to the discussion on Innovation for Development. It is argued that innovation strategies in developing countries are the result of competing policy and contextual factors. In exploring this theme, it suggests that innovation strategies which are shaped by domestic market and policy realities are more robust and contribute towards improving the country-level...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Rasigan Maharajh
2009
Mario Scerri

This paper uses the concepts of means of innovation and modes of innovation to introduce an alternative approach to the understanding of the evolution of the South African system of innovation. Modes of innovation are defined in terms of ownership and control patterns of the means of innovation, as well as the role played by human capital. The relationship between ideology and modes of...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri
2008
Thomas Pogue

The paper illustrates the role of political and social dynamics upon technological change. Examining dynamics transforming excavation practices on South Africa’s goldmines, it describes how a technology that opened up a range of social and economic opportunities became a constraint on those opportunities. This technology’s development and diffusion thereby established a critical precedent in...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators
2008
Angathevar Baskaran and Mammo Muchie

The ability to absorb and use effectively FDI flows by countries to enhance their national productive systems is directly related to the degree of functioning of an economy’s national innovation system. We develop a heuristic NSI-FDI framework that proposed three types of NSIs (well functioning/strong, relatively well functioning, and weak) in relation with three types of corresponding FDI...

Keywords: IERI Working Papers | Innovation theory, systems and indicators

Journal Article

2014
Mario Scerri

The Brazil, Russia, India China and South Africa (BRICS) group has emerged as a collection of large economies which are outside the traditional groups of industrialised “first world” economies and which have altered the global distribution of economic power. The basis of their emergence is a combination of their size and growth rates, and the fact that they lie outside the established centres...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Journal Article | Mario Scerri
2012
Mario Scerri

In this paper I examine the possible modes of introducing a Systems of Innovation (SI) approach into economics curricula. I look at the various possible choices of coupling this approach with standard economic curricula and then explore the implications of these various choices. I link this argument with current heterodox debates on the relevance of the neoclassical text and the...

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Journal Article | Mario Scerri

Presentations and Other

2014
Erika Kraemer-Mbula & Rasigan Maharajh

Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), along with Stellenbosch University, is co-host  to the Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Scientometrics and...

Keywords: Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2012
Helena M M Lastres

World Crises of the 3rd Millennium

  • Social inclusion sustains dynamic domestic market
  • de-mystifying the need to dissociate andantagonize economic and social policies
  • Robust banking system not exposed to problematic assets
  • Investment growing above consumption Several investment opportunities:
    Oil & Gas, Energy, Infrastructure, PAC...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | International Seminar | LIPS | Presentations and Other
2012
Helena M M Lastres

Development policies in the second decade of the Third Millennium

  • crises and emergence of a new accummulation regime
  • financiarization and the emphasis on liquidity, short termism and on financial performance parametres
  • individualism and implosion of the process of negotiation and coordination of policies among the different areas and scales of government
  • ...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | International Seminar | LIPS | Presentations and Other
2012
Rasigan Maharajh
  • Concurrent crisis's all emanate from the current mode of production and consumption, waste, and environmental degradation
  • Accelerated distribution through neo-liberal globalisation
  • Hegemonic World System, Unilateralism & State violence
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2012
Bitrina Diyamett and Erika Kraemer-Mbula

Building a community of innovation scholars will promote locally relevant research and policy, say Bitrina Diyamett and Erika Kraemer-Mbula.

Africa has made remarkable progress in building capacity in natural and engineering sciences over the past decade. The endorsement of...

Keywords: Africa | Building capacity | Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Research
2012
Lindile L. Ndabeni

Concluding remarks:

  • South Africa’s economy is largely driven by cities
  • Towns and cities serve as concentrations of economic activity within the national spatial economies
  • Economies of scale
  • Specialised business services
  • Infrastructure
  • 71% of population live in cities and towns, particularly along the coast, Gauteng, and Limpopo and...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Lindile L Ndabeni, PhD | Presentations and Other
2012
Rasigan Maharajh
  • Economic growth - development programmes - seek to improve the quality of life of the general population
  • Rising rates of change
    • unaccompanied by any significant improvement in most of the indicators of human development & 'jobless growth'
  • Growing gap between Africa, & especially sub-Saharan Africa, and most of the rest of the world in...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2012
Gerhard Kuhn

Goods-producing sectors (i.e. Agriculture, forestry & fishing, Mining, Manufacturing) accounted for 25.5% of overall economic activity (GDP) in 2011, compared to 32% in 2002.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | International Seminar | LIPS | Presentations and Other
2011
Shakespear Mudombi
  • For meaningful adaptation to and mitigation of climate change,
    • Information and knowledge - essential
  • If rural households, communities have access to information,
    • it will enhance their awareness; adaptation and mitigation capacity
  • How do we enhance climate change awareness?
  • There are various ways in which...
Keywords: doctoral workshop | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | SARChI Research Seminar
2011
Silas K Mulaudzi
  • Energy is the nucleus of any development in the world
  • Every development owes its being to energy
  • If the world’s economy expands to meet the aspirations of countries around the globe, energy demand is likely to increase
  • Because of that energy is considered as the life-blood of every development in the world
Keywords: doctoral workshop | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | SARChI Research Seminar
2011
Chipo Nyamwena
  • Overview insights of biofuels
  • Problem statement
  • Objectives of the study
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Research methodology
  • Findings and discussion
  • Recommendations and conclusion
Keywords: doctoral workshop | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | SARChI Research Seminar
2011
Mulatu F Zerihun
  1. Introduction
    1. Socioeconomic Methodologies in AF Technology Adoption
    2. Methodologies in Economic Analysis of AF
    3. Methodologies in Environmental Analysis of AF
    4. Methodologies in Household Constraints and Adoption of AF
    5. Methodologies in Macroeconomic and Institutional Analysis of AF
  2. Selected Methodologies in this Study and...
Keywords: doctoral workshop | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | SARChI Research Seminar
2011
Erika Kraemer-Mbula

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the role that benchmarking can play in rural and agricultural innovations. Although generally known as ‗traditional sectors‘, rural activities are far from static but rather driven by old and new challenges pleading for innovative responses. Despite the broad range of insights from the burgeoning literature on innovation systems during the last decade...

Keywords: Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other
2011
Rasigan Maharajh
  1. Introduction
  2. History
  3. Post-apartheid Reform
  4. Sector and System Characteristics
  5. Innovation System Performance
  6. Conclusion: Enduring Challenges For Higher Education & the Innovation System
Keywords: Higher Education | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | National System of Innovation | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2010
Derek Hanekom

Let me start by congratulating the Institute for Economic Research on Innovation on its fifth anniversary, an important milestone if one considers that, in business terms, passing the three and a half year mark mean that you have made it beyond start-up. This is no mean feat.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other
2010
Rasigan Maharajh

As of today, the 6th of May 2010, we share the world with at least 6,819,184,140 other human beings (US Census Clock Widget1). Can I encourage you to participate in a mind experiment; and normalise that rather large number to just 100 people.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2010
Erika Kraemer-Mbula

The contribution of innovation to social and economic progress of developing countries is widely recognised. Governments and other actors are actively seeking to increase the firms' ability to deliver successful innovation to multiple sectors, particularly those related to emerging technologies - such as ICTs.

Keywords: Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other
2010
Fred Gault

Outline

  • Introduction
    • Innovation strategies in the OECD and in the European Union
    • What is innovation?
    • Innovation systems
  • OECD Innovation Strategy (IS)
  • IS Products - 2010 Key findings
    1. Empowering people
    2. Unleashing innovation in firms
    3. Creating and applying knowledge
    4. Applying...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other
2010
Mario Scerri

There were a number of options in the naming of this institute whose anniversary wen have gathered here today to celebrate. This was due to the nature of our object of analysis, innovation, where a number of disciplines intersect and where, therefore, a strong degree of multi-disciplinarity is called for.

Keywords: Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Mario Scerri | Presentations and Other
2010
Fred Gault

Innovation and innovation policies are important, as they have been linked to growth, and growth is needed to pay for social services and to pay back the bailouts resulting from the recent financial crisis. In fact, the financial crisis was a direct result of innovation in financial services. Monetized debt instruments were brought to the market as new, or significantly improved, products, a...

Keywords: Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other
2008
Rasigan Maharajh
  • National System of Innovation
    – Policy – Strategy – Plan - Agency
  • Higher Education Landscape
    - Reform & Qualifications
  • Sustainable Development
  • Challenges
Keywords: Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2008
Lindile Ndabeni

In managing Gauteng as a global city region it will be important to enhance:

  • Alliances with regional universities and research centres
  • Boost the regional innovation systems of Gauteng
  • Overcome silos in policy making and improve co-ordination in the management of the city region
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Lindile L Ndabeni, PhD | Presentations and Other
2007
Rasigan Maharajh

Local Economic Development is important for:

  • Growth in Productivity and Competitiveness
  • Social Cohesion
  • Good governance a.k.a. Accountability

Science Parks contribute to:

  • Capacity mobilisation
  • Capability formation
  • Competency creation

National Systems of Innovation provide the conceptual framework to:

...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh | Science parks
2006
Thomas Pogue

The Witwatersrand Basin is an ancient inland sea around 3 billion years old and roughly 350km long by 150km wide

Most of the basin is covered by younger rocks of considerable depth, but tectonics exposed the northern edge

On that edge, in a region know as the Central Rand mining of the Witwatersrand Basin began

Keywords: Gold mining | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Research collaboration
2006
Rasigan Maharajh
  • Research, Science & Innovation contributes to increased and expanded performance of institutions, firms & agency
    • “core dimension for political prioritisation in improving society’s efficiency in resource use”
  • KISS: How, Why, Where & When are important metrics
    • Requires a deep understanding of underlying political economy, history...
Keywords: Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2005
Rasigan Maharajh
  • Introduction
  • Evolutionary Political Economy
    • Schools of Economic Thought & Innovation
    • Critique of Neo-classical Economics
    • Evolutionary Political Economy
  • National Systems of Innovation
    • History
    • Current divergent paths
  • Policy Matters
    • Explicit
    • Implicit
  • Concluding...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
2005
Rasigan Maharajh
  • Evidence-based policy research
    • shaping policy from a scientific assessment of phenomena through testing hypothetical explanations of natural and social facts and systems
    • Theory from facts...
  • Key issues
    • Question, evidence, interpretation
    • Uncertainty & probability
    • Methodological rigour
    • Stakeholder sentiment
    • ...
Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Knowledge | Policy | Presentations and Other | Rasigan Maharajh
Jonathan Aylen

Alec Boksenberg, of the UK National Commission for UNESCO, outstanding career as a physicist and astronomer as Astronomer Royal, now Professor of Experimental Astronomy in the University of Cambridge. Has an Asteroid named after him.

Keywords: Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Presentations and Other

Conference Paper

2013
Erika Kraemer-Mbula

This paper explores innovation in rural health care systems in remote or marginalised areas where limited public health care is available. To overcome this challenge and satisfy the universal demand for health care, populations in remote rural areas often rely on multiple private providers that deliver services based on various sources of knowledge (both traditional and modern sciences). Rural...

Keywords: Conference Paper | Erika Kraemer-Mbula | Inclusive development | Innovation | Innovation theory, systems and indicators | Rural health | South Africa